BACKGROUND: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) acts as a salivary biomimetic that provides bioavailable calcium and phosphate ions to augment fluoride-mediated remineralisation of early caries lesions. However, there are indications that it may also have beneficial ecological effects on the oral microbiome.
OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study investigated whether CPP-ACP could influence microbial counts, acidogenicity, and the relative abundance of specific caries- and health-associated bacterial -species in polymicrobial biofilms.
METHODS: Saliva-derived polymicrobial biofilms were grown for 96 h in a cariogenic environment and treated every 12 h with 2% CPP-ACP or vehicle control. Colony forming units (CFUs) and acidogenicity were estimated from the treated biofilms. Microbial ecological effects of CPP-ACP were assessed based on the relative abundance of 14 specific caries- and health-associated -bacterial species using a real-time quantitative PCR assay. -Results: CPP-ACP-treated biofilms showed relatively modest, but significant, reductions in microbial CFUs (21% reduction, p = 0.008) and acidogenicity (33% reduction, p < 0.001), compared to the control-treated biofilms. The CPP-ACP treated biofilms also exhibited significantly lower bacterial loads of cariogenic Scardovia wiggsiae (fold change 0.017, p < 0.001) and Prevotella denticola(fold change 0.005, p < 0.001), and higher bacterial loads of commensal Streptococcus sanguinis(fold change 30.22, p < 0.001), S. mitis/oralis(fold change 9.66, p = 0.012), and S. salivarius/thermophilus(fold change 89.35, p < 0.001) than the control-treated biofilms.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that CPP-ACP has virulence-attenuating attributes that can influence a beneficial microbial ecological change in the biofilm.
Bibliographical note© 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate
- Oral microbiome
- polymicrobial biofilms
- microbial ecology