The 2002 discovery of the earliest European modem humans in the Pestera cu Oase (Romania) has led to systematic excavations of a bone bed (two levels), containing principally the remains of cave bears (ca. 5000 bones) and dated between 50 and 40 ka cal BP. The thanatocenosis corresponds mainly to a subadult and adult male utilization of the cavity. Levels I and 2 are distinguishable by different conservation processes demonstrating respectively low- and high-energy hydraulic transports. The heavy component of cannibalism may indicate bone processing for trace elements and/or a more omnivorous diet than is usually ascribed to cave bears.