Cell type-dependent cytokine expression after canine distemper virus infection

A Grone, S Fonfara, W Baumgartner

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    Canine cells of different histogenesis were infected with the Onderstepoort strain of distemper virus (CDV) to study the effect of viral infection on cytokine production. Included were primary brain cells, dermal fibroblasts, and two cell lines, DH 82 cells (macrophage-like) and epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All cultures produced infective virus. MDCK cells had the lowest percentage of CDV-antigen positive cells, and infection did not cause a significant increase of cell death. After infection, mRNA steady state levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF) were analyzed using RT-PCR. IL-6 and TNF protein were assessed immunohistochemically. In general, CDV infection resulted in induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In primary brain and DH 82 cells, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF were induced, and IL-1 and TNF but not IL-6 were upregulated in dermal fibroblasts. In contrast, in MDCK cells IL-1 and TNF expression was similar in infected and noninfected cells, whereas IL-6 was not produced in either condition. In addition, cytokine induction correlated to the degree of level of CDV production, and therefore cytopathic effects are presumed to be due to a direct virus-mediated or cytokine-mediated process. These findings suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely IL-1, IL-6, and TNF, which might play an important role in CDV pathogenesis, are induced in a cell-specific manner.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)493-505
    Number of pages13
    JournalViral immunology
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2002

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