Nonlinear ultrasonic diffuse energy imaging is a highly sensitive method for the measurement of elastic nonlinearity. While the underlying principles that govern the technique are understood, the precise behavior and sensitivity have not previously been quantified. This article presents experimental, theoretical and numerical modeling studies undertaken to characterize nonlinear diffuse energy imaging. The influence of incoherent noise, elastic nonlinearity and instrumentation error are quantified. This work enables prediction of spatial sensitivity, aperture and amplitude dependence of the measurement, all of which moves the technique towards industrial viability. Further, while previous studies have focused on detection of closed cracks, the ultimate aim for nonlinear ultrasonic imaging in application to material testing is the detection of damage precursors, which requires a sensitivity to weak classical nonlinearity. This study identifies the experimental requirements necessary for this to be achieved, greatly expanding the potential applicability of nonlinear ultrasonic array imaging.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control|
|Early online date||15 Mar 2018|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 15 Mar 2018|