Childhood Epstein-Barr Virus infection and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence: A population-based prospective serological study

Golam M. Khandaker*, Jan Stochl, Stanley Zammit, Glyn Lewis, Peter B. Jones

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest a link between early-life infection and adult schizophrenia. Cross-sectional studies have reported: (1) increased prevalence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), a member of the Herpesviridae family in schizophrenia; (2) a possible role of Herpes simplex virus in cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and healthy controls. We report a longitudinal serological study of early-life EBV infection, childhood IQ, and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences (PE) in adolescence. METHODS: Serum antibodies to EBV (anti-VCA IgG) were measured in 530 participants from the ALSPAC cohort at age 4 years. Assessments for IQ at age 9 and PE at age 13 were attended by 401 and 366 of these individuals, respectively. Logistic regression calculated odds ratio (OR) for PE in EBV-exposed, compared with unexposed group. Mean IQ scores were compared between these groups; effect of IQ on the EBV-PE association was examined. Potential confounders included age, gender, ethnicity, social class, household crowding, and concurrent depression and anxiety. RESULTS: About 25% of the sample was exposed to EBV at age 4. EBV exposure was associated with subsequent risk of definite PE in adolescence; OR 5.37 (95% CI 1.71-16.87), which remained significant after confounding adjustment. EBV-exposed individuals compared with unexposed performed worse on all IQ measures; mean difference in full-scale IQ 4.15 (95% CI 0.44-7.87); however, this was explained by socio-demographic differences. The EBV-PE association was not explained by IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Early-life exposure to EBV is associated with PE in adolescence, consistent with a role of infection/immune dysfunction in the aetiology of psychosis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-24
Number of pages6
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Volume158
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2014

Keywords

  • ALSPAC birth cohort
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Herpes Simplex Virus
  • IgG antibody
  • IQ
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Psychotic experiences
  • Schizophrenia risk
  • Serology

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