The focus on Chlamydia trachomatis in gynecologic practice 20 years ago was in treating its potential consequences: pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Although these conditions are still important, the current focus of C. trachomatis management for the obstetrician and gynecologist is early detection and treatment. The majority of women with C. trachomatis are asymptomatic, therefore, screening programs are being devised so that C. trachomatis can be treated prior to the occurence of any adverse consequences. Novel tests have allowed the use of urine samples and self-collected vulvovaginal swabs in the detection of C. trachomatis. This article will review the consequences of C. trachomatis infection in women, methods of identification of the organism, the prevalence in various populations, and treatment and screening strategies.