We resolve debate over the evolution of vertebrate hypermineralized tissues through analyses of matrix protein-encoding secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) genes and phylogenetic inference of hypermineralized tissues. Among these genes, AMBN and ENAM are found in both sarcopterygians and actinopterygians, while AMEL and SCPP5 are found only in sarcopterygians and actinopterygians, respectively. Actinopterygian AMBN, ENAM, and SCPP5 are expressed during formation of hypermineralized tissues on scales and teeth: ganoin, acrodin, and collar enamel in gar, and acrodin and collar enameloid in zebrafish. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate emergence of an ancestral enamel in stem-osteichthyans, while ganoin emerged in stem-actinopterygians, and true enamel in stem-sarcopterygians. Thus, AMBN and ENAM originated in concert with ancestral enamel, SCPP5 evolved in association with ganoin, while AMEL evolved with true enamel. Shifts in gene expression domain and timing explain the evolution of different hypermineralized tissues. We propose that hypermineralized tissues in osteichthyans coevolved with matrix SCPP genes.
- enamel matrix
- SCPP genes