Colony size predicts division of labour in attine ants

Henry Ferguson-Gow*, Seirian Sumner, Andrew F G Bourke, Kate E Jones

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)
283 Downloads (Pure)


Division of labour is central to the ecological success of eusocial insects, yet the evolutionary factors driving increases in complexity in division of labour are little known. The size-complexity hypothesis proposes that, as larger colonies evolve, both non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour become more complex as workers and queens act to maximize inclusive fitness. Using a statistically robust phylogenetic comparative analysis of social and environmental traits of species within the ant tribe Attini, we show that colony size is positively related to both non-reproductive (worker size variation) and reproductive (queen-worker dimorphism) division of labour. The results also suggested that colony size acts on non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour in different ways. Environmental factors, including measures of variation in temperature and precipitation, had no significant effects on any division of labour measure or colony size. Overall, these results support the size-complexity hypothesis for the evolution of social complexity and division of labour in eusocial insects. Determining the evolutionary drivers of colony size may help contribute to our understanding of the evolution of social complexity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20141411
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1793
Publication statusPublished - 27 Aug 2014

Bibliographical note

Date of Acceptance: 01/08/2014


  • Caste evolution
  • Formicidae
  • Queen - worker dimorphism
  • Social evolution
  • Worker size polymorphism


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