Combined Effect of Sauna Bathing and Cardiorespiratory Fitness on the Risk of Sudden Cardiac Deaths in Caucasian Men: a Long-Term Prospective Cohort Study

Jari A Laukkanen, Tanjaniina Laukkanen, Hassan Khan, Maira Babar, Setor K Kunutsor

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article (Academic Journal)peer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
231 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Both cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and frequency of sauna bathing (FSB) are each strongly and independently associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk. However, the combined effect of CRF and FSB on SCD risk has not been previously investigated. We evaluated the joint impact of CRF and FSB on the risk of SCD in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study of 2291 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. Objectively measured CRF and self-reported sauna bathing habits were assessed at baseline. CRF was categorized as low and high (median cutoffs) and FSB as low and high (defined as ≤2 and 3-7 sessions/week respectively). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for SCD. During a median follow-up of 26.1 years, 226 SCDs occurred. Comparing high vs low CRF, the HR (95% CIs) for SCD in analysis adjusted for several established risk factors was 0.48 (0.34-0.67). Comparing high vs low FSB, the corresponding HR was 0.67 (0.46-0.98). Compared to men with low CRF & low FSB, the multivariate-adjusted HRs of SCD for the following groups: high CRF & high FSB; high CRF & low FSB; and low CRF & high FSB were 0.31 (0.16-0.63), 0.49 (0.34-0.70), and 0.71 (0.45-1.10) respectively. In a general male Caucasian population, the combined effect of high aerobic fitness (as measured by CRF) and frequent sauna baths is associated with a substantially lowered risk of future SCD compared with high CRF or frequent sauna bathing alone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)635-641
Number of pages7
JournalProgress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume60
Issue number6
Early online date15 Mar 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018

Keywords

  • Cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Sauna
  • Sudden cardiac death

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Combined Effect of Sauna Bathing and Cardiorespiratory Fitness on the Risk of Sudden Cardiac Deaths in Caucasian Men: a Long-Term Prospective Cohort Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this