Combined Effects of Axial and Lateral Loading for Glued-In Steel Rods in Laminated Veneer Lumber

Daniel Fawcett, Eleni Toumpanaki*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review


Glued-in rod timber connections are used to achieve structural continuity in timber structural members and as moment connections due to their high efficiency, stiffness and axial load transition. Existing studies have focused on axial withdrawal load capacity but there is limited research on laterally loaded glued-in rods and combined effects of lateral and axial loading which is common loading condition for all connections. This study investigates the relationship between axial and lateral loading in the ductile failure modes of glued-in steel rods in hardwood LVL. In all specimens an unbonded length was provided based on the latest design recommendations to mitigate splitting failure. The introduction of lateral load had no effect on the axial load capacities of the rods when the governing failure mode was rod yielding. This is not currently addressed in Eurocode 5. The lateral force capacity exceeded the design code prediction by 92%, and design recommendations are discussed for more accurate estimation of the lateral capacity. The use of the component method can be adopted to estimate accurately the rotational stiffness of moment connections with glued-in rods in LVL.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105310
Early online date6 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank James Norman who gave permission for the use of left-over LVL from Joshua Mudie's project. We would like to express our appreciation to the technical staff at the University of Bristol's Mechanical Workshop and Heavy & Light Structures Lab for their assistance with the manufacture and testing (respectively) of the specimens.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)


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