Saliva contains many proteins that have an important role in biological process of the oral cavity and is closely associated with many diseases. Although the dog is a common companion animal, the composition of salivary proteome and its relationship with that of human are unclear. In this study, shotgun proteomics was used to compare the salivary proteomes of 7 Thai village dogs and 7 human subjects. Salivary proteomes revealed 2,532 differentially expressed proteins in dogs and humans, representing various functions including cellular component organization or biogenesis, cellular process, localization, biological regulation, response to stimulus, developmental process, multicellular organismal process, metabolic process, immune system process, apoptosis and biological adhesion. The oral proteomes of dogs and humans were appreciably different. Proteins related to apoptosis processes and biological adhesion were predominated in dog saliva. Drug-target network predictions by STITCH Version 5.0 showed that dog salivary proteins were found to have potential roles in tumorigenesis, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial processes. In addition, proteins related to regeneration and healing processes such as fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor were also up-regulated in dogs. These findings provide new information on dog saliva composition and will be beneficial for the study of dog saliva in diseased and health conditions in the future.