Comparing Techniques for Quantification of Creep Cavities

Siqi He*, Peter E J Flewitt, David M Knowles, Tomas L Martin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference Contribution (Conference Proceeding)

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Creep cavitation is a key limitation for the life of a component acting under load at elevated temperatures. This paper compares several modern techniques available to characterize and understand the formation of creep cavities. Conventional 2D imaging techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) imaging characterize morphology and distribution over a large area, while scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has higher resolution but limited sampling area. 3D imaging techniques such as X-ray Tomography (XRT) enable the characterization of creep cavities in three dimensions, however XRT can be limited in cavity identification due to resolution. To bridge the length-scale gap, FIB serial sectioning can reconstruct the creep cavities at a single grain boundary with a much higher resolution, whilst advancements in Plasma FIB enable this high resolution characterization over a larger reconstruction volume. For optimum creep cavitation characterization, multiple techniques should be used in complement with each other.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPROCEEDINGS ESIA15–ISSI2019
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 15th International Conference on Engineering Structural Integrity Assessment and the 2019 International Symposium on Structural Integrity, held on May 8–9, 2019 in Manchester, UK.
EditorsBrian Tomkins, Shan-Tung Tu, Peter EJ Flewitt, John K Sharples
PublisherFESI Publishing
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)978-0-9935485-3-6
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2021


  • Microstructure
  • Materials Characterisation
  • Creep cavitation


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