Coordination chemistry in the solid state: synthesis and interconversion of pyrazolium salts, pyrazole complexes, and pyrazolate MOFs

Christopher J. Adams, Mukhtar A. Kurawa, A. Guy Orpen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Solid pyrazole reacts with HCl gas to form pyrazolium chloride [H(2)pz] Cl, which reacts in the solid state, under grinding, with metal chlorides MCl2 (M = Co, Zn, Cu) to form the pyrazolium tetrachlorometallate salts [H(2)pz](2)[MCl4] (M = Co 1, Zn 3, Cu 5). Salt 5 cannot be made in solution, and upon standing at room temperature spontaneously emits HCl to give the coordination compound [CuCl2(Hpz)(2)] (6). Compounds 1 and 3 do not exhibit this behaviour, but can be ground together with bases such as KOH or K2CO3 to effect the elimination of HCl and afford their respective [MCl2(Hpz)(2)] compounds (M = Co 2, Zn 4). 2, 4 and 6 can also be synthesised in the solid-state by direct reaction of the appropriate metal chloride with pyrazole, or by reaction of a basic metal salt such as the carbonate or hydroxide with pyrazolium chloride. 4 and 6 {and their nickel analogue [NiCl2(Hpz)(2)]} can be ground with a further two equivalents of base to make the known polymeric metal pyrazolates [M(pz)(2)](n) (M = Ni 7, Cu 8, Zn 9); the same reaction appears to work for the cobalt analogue 2, but the presumed product [Co(pz)(2)](n) 10 then decomposes by oxidation. The imidazolate complexes [M(im)(2)] (M = Ni, 11; Cu, 12; Zn, 13; Co, 14) were similarly prepared by grinding the appropriate [M(Him)(2)Cl-2] precursor with KOH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6974-6984
Number of pages11
JournalDalton Transactions
Issue number30
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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