Countering Misinformation and Fake News Through Inoculation and Prebunking

Stephan Lewandowsky*, Sander Van Der Linden

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review


There has been increasing concern with the growing infusion of misinformation, or “fake news”, into public discourse and politics in many western democracies. Our article first briefly reviews the current state of the literature on conventional countermeasures to misinformation. We then explore proactive measures to prevent misinformation from finding traction in the first place that are based on the psychological theory of “inoculation”. Inoculation rests on the idea that if people are forewarned that they might be misinformed and are exposed to weakened examples of the ways in which they might be misled, they will become more immune to misinformation. We review a number of techniques that can boost people’s resilience to misinformation, ranging from general warnings to more specific instructions about misleading (rhetorical) techniques. We show that based on the available evidence, inoculation appears to be a promising avenue to help protect people from misinformation and “fake news”.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages39
JournalEuropean Review of Social Psychology
Early online date22 Feb 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Feb 2021

Structured keywords

  • Cognitive Science
  • Memory


  • Fake news
  • Misinformation
  • Inoculation Theory
  • Prebunking


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