The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to be critical for specific forms of long-term recognition memory, however the cellular mechanisms in the mPFC that underpin memory maintenance have not been well characterized. This study examined the importance of phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in the mPFC for different forms of long-term recognition memory in the rat. Adenoviral transduction of the mPFC with a dominant-negative inhibitor of CREB impaired object-in-place memory following a 6 or 24 h retention delay, but no impairment was observed following delays of 5 min or 3 h. Long-term object temporal order memory and spatial temporal order memory was also impaired. In contrast, there were no impairments in novel object recognition or object location memory. These results establish, for the first time, the importance of CREB phosphorylation within the mPFC for memory of associative and temporal information crucial to recognition.