OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel strategy, Multilevel Analysis of Individual Heterogeneity and Discriminatory Accuracy (MAIHDA) to evaluate hospital performance, by analysing differences in 30-day mortality after a first-ever acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Sweden.
DESIGN: Cross-classified study.
SETTING: 68 Swedish hospitals.
PARTICIPANTS: 43 247 patients admitted between 2007 and 2009, with a first-ever AMI.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluate hospital performance by analysing differences in 30-day mortality after a first-ever AMI using a cross-classified multilevel analysis. We classified the patients into 10 categories according to a risk score (RS) for 30-day mortality and created 680 strata defined by combining hospital and RS categories.
RESULTS: In the cross-classified multilevel analysis the overall RS adjusted hospital 30-day mortality in Sweden was 4.78% and the between-hospital variation was very small (variance partition coefficient (VPC)=0.70%, area under the curve (AUC)=0.54). The benchmark value was therefore achieved by all hospitals. However, as expected, there were large differences between the RS categories (VPC=34.13%, AUC=0.77) CONCLUSIONS: MAIHDA is a useful tool to evaluate hospital performance. The benefit of this novel approach to adjusting for patient RS is that it allowed one to estimate separate VPCs and AUC statistics to simultaneously evaluate the influence of RS categories and hospital differences on mortality. At the time of our analysis, all hospitals in Sweden were performing homogeneously well. That is, the benchmark target for 30-day mortality was fully achieved and there were not relevant hospital differences. Therefore, possible quality interventions should be universal and oriented to maintain the high hospital quality of care.