Crystal plasticity model of residual stress in additive manufacturing

Nicolò Grilli, Daijun Hu, Dewen Yushu, Fan Chen, Wentao Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

126 Downloads (Pure)


Selective laser melting is receiving increasing interest as an additive manufacturing technique. Residual stresses induced by the large temperature gradients and inhomogeneous cooling process can favour the generation of cracks. In this work, a crystal plasticity finite element model is developed to simulate the formation of residual stresses and to understand the correlation between plastic deformation, grain orientation and residual stresses in the additive manufacturing process. The temperature profile and grain structure from the thermal-fluid flow and grain growth simulations are implemented into the crystal plasticity model. An element elimination and reactivation method is proposed to model the melting and solidification and to reinitialise state variables, such as the plastic deformation, in the reactivated elements; it represents a step forward compared with previous methods based on the stiffness degradation of liquid regions. The method is used to investigate residual stresses parallel and perpendicular to the laser scan direction, and the correlation with the maximum Schmid factor of the grains along those directions. The magnitude of the residual stress can be predicted as a function of the depth, grain orientation and position with respect to the molten pool.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusUnpublished - 27 May 2021


  • additive manufacturing
  • 316 stainless steel
  • residual stress
  • finite element method
  • crystal plasticity
  • grain structure


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