Crystal structure, characterization, Hirshfeld surface analysis and DFT studies of two [propane 3-bromo-1-(triphenyl phosphonium)] cations containing bromide (I) and tribromide (II) anions: The anion (II) as a new brominating agent for unsaturated compounds

Seyed Reza Nokhbeh, Mostafa Gholizadeh*, Alireza Salimi, Hazel A. Sparkes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

1 Citation (Scopus)
16 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

In this study, propane 3-bromo-1- (triphenyl phosphonium) bromide, I, and propane 3-bromo-1- (triphenyl phosphonium) tribromide, II, (II as a new brominating agent) were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, FT-IR, spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Differential thermal analysis, Differential scanning calorimetry and single crystal X-ray analysis. Density functional theory calculations (energy, structural optimization and frequencies, Natural Bond Orbital, absorption energy and binding energy) were performed by using B3LYP/6-311 G++ (d, p) level of theory. Hirshfeld surface analysis and fingerprint plots were utilized to investigate the role of bromide and tribromide anions on the crystal packing structures of title compounds. The results revealed that the change of accompanying anionic moiety can affect the directional interactions of C-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds between anionic and cationic units in which the H⋯Br with a proportion of 53.8% and 40.9% have the major contribution in the stabilization of crystal structures of I and II, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal stability of new brominating agent II with tribromide anion was compared with compound I with bromide anion. Nontoxicity, short reaction time, thermal stability, simple working up and high yield are some of the advantages of these salts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)542-554
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Molecular Structure
Volume1195
Early online date6 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Nov 2019

Keywords

  • Brominating agent
  • Crystal structure
  • DFT calculations
  • Hirshfeld surface analysis
  • Phosphonium tribromide

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