Current and former ecstasy users report different sleep to matched controls: a web based questionnaire study

R Carhart-Harris, DJ Nutt, MR Munafo, SJ Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study sought to test the association between ecstasy-use and abnormal sleep. An anonymous web-based questionnaire containing questions on drug use and sleep was completed by 1035 individuals. From this large sample, a group of 89 ecstasy users were found who reported very little use of other drugs. This "ecstasy-only" group was further divided into two groups of 31 current users and 58 abstinent users. The subjective sleep of current and former ecstasy-only users was compared with that of matched controls. Patients were asked to rate their sleep according to: 1) sleep quality, 2) sleep latency, 3) night time awakenings and 4) total sleep time. Current ecstasy-only users reported significantly worse sleep quality (P <0.05) and a greater total sleep time (P <0.001) than controls. It was inferred that these differences might be due to recovery from the acute effects of the drug. Abstinent ecstasy-only users reported significantly more nighttime awakenings than controls (P <0.01). These subjective findings are in agreement with the objective findings of previous studies showing persistent sleep abnormalities in ecstasy users.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249 - 257
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Psychopharmacology
Volume23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2009

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