Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases metabolize endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids to their corresponding epoxides, generating bioactive lipid mediators. The latter play an important role in vascular homeostasis, angiogenesis, and inflammation. As little is known about the functional importance of extra-vascular sources of lipid epoxides, we focused on determining whether lipid epoxide-generating CYP isoforms are expressed in human monocytes/macrophages. Epoxides were generated by freshly isolated human monocytes and production increased markedly during differentiation to macrophages. Mass spectrometric analysis identified CYP2S1 as a novel macrophage CYP and CYP2S1-containing microsomes generated epoxides of arachidonic, linoleic and eicosapentaenoic acid. Macrophage CYP2S1 expression was increased by LPS and IFN-γ (classically activated), and oxidized LDL but not IL-4 and IL-13 (alternatively activated), and was colocalised with CD68 in inflamed human tonsils but not in breast cancer metastases. Prostaglandin (PG) E(2) is an immune modulator factor that promotes phagocytosis and CYP2S1 can metabolize its immediate precursors PGG(2) and PGH(2) to 12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid (12-HHT). We found that CYP inhibition and siRNA-mediated downregulation of CYP2S1 increased macrophage phagocytosis and that the latter effect correlated with decreased 12-HHT formation. Although no Cyp2s1 protein was detected in aortae from wild-type mice it was expressed in aortae and macrophage foam cells from ApoE(-/-) mice. Consistent with these observations CYP2S1 was colocalised with the monocyte marker CD68 in human atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, CYP2S1 generates 12-HHT and is a novel regulator of macrophage function that is expressed in classical inflammatory macrophages, and can be found in murine and human atherosclerotic plaques.
|Article number||doi: 10.1007/s00395-012-0319-8|
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Basic Research in Cardiology|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|
- Linoleic acid
- macrophage polarization
- omega 3 fatty acids