Low-heat skim milk powder (LHSMP) was manufactured on 3 separate occasions in mid lactation (ML, July 4–20) and late lactation (LL, September 27 to October 7) from bulk milk of 3 spring-calving dairy herds on different feeding systems: grazing on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pasture (GRO), grazing on perennial ryegrass and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pasture (GRC), and housed indoors and offered total mixed ration (TMR). The resultant powders (GRO-SMP, GRC-SMP, and TMR-SMP) were evaluated for composition and color and for the compositional, physicochemical, and processing characteristics of the reconstituted skim milk (RSM) prepared by dispersing the powders to 10% (wt/wt) in water. Feeding system significantly affected the contents of protein and lactose, the elemental composition, and the color of the LHSMP, as well as the rennet gelation properties of the RSM. The GRO and GRC powders had a higher protein content; lower levels of lactose, iodine, and selenium; and a more yellow-green color (lower a* and higher b* color coordinates) than TMR powder. On reconstitution, the GRO-RSM had higher concentrations of protein, casein, and ionic calcium, and lower concentrations of lactose and nonprotein nitrogen (% of total N). It also produced rennet gels with a higher storage modulus (G′) than the corresponding TMR-RSM. These effects were observed over the combined ML and LL period but varied somewhat during the separate ML and LL periods. Otherwise, feeding system had little or no effect on proportions of individual caseins, concentration of serum casein, casein micelle size, casein hydration, heat coagulation time, or ethanol stability of the RSM at pH 6.2 to 7.2, or on the water-holding capacity, viscosity, and flow behavior of stirred yogurt prepared by starter-induced acidification of RSM. The differences in the functionality of the LHSMP may be of greater or lesser importance depending on the application and the conditions applied during the processing of the RSM.
- skim milk powder
- total mixed ration