Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is used for detection, characterization, and sizing of defects. The accurate sizing of defects that are of similar or less size than the ultrasonic wavelength is of particular importance in assessing structural integrity. In this paper, we demonstrate how measurement of the scattering coefficient matrix of a cracklike defect can be used to obtain its size, shape, and orientation. The scattering coefficient matrix describes the far field amplitude of scattered signals from a scatterer as a function of incident and scattering angles. A finite element (FE) modeling procedure is described that predicts the scattering coefficient matrix of various cracklike defects. Experimental results are presented using a commercial 64-element, 5 MHz array on 2 aluminum test samples that contain several machined slots and through thickness circular holes. To minimize the interference from the reflections of neighboring defects, a subarray approach is used to focus ultrasound on each target defect in turn and extract its scattering coefficient matrices. A circular hole and a fine slot can be clearly distinguished by their different scattering coefficient matrices over a specific range of incident angles and scattering angles. The orientation angles of slots directly below the array are deduced from the measured scattering coefficient matrix to an accuracy of a few degrees, and their lengths are determined with an error of 10%.
|Translated title of the contribution||Defect characterization using an ultrasonic array to measure the scattering coefficient matrix|
|Pages (from-to)||2254 - 2265|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2008|