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Depression and incident HIV in adolescent girls and young women in HPTN 068: Targets for prevention and mediating factors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Dana E Goin
  • Rebecca M Pearson
  • Michelle G Craske
  • Alan Stein
  • Audrey Pettifor
  • Sheri A Lippman
  • Kathleen Kahn
  • Torsten B Neilands
  • Erica L Hamilton
  • Amanda Selin
  • Catherine MacPhail
  • Ryan G Wagner
  • F Xavier Gomez-Olive
  • Rhian Twine
  • James P Hughes
  • Yaw Agyei
  • Oliver Laeyendecker
  • Stephen Tollman
  • Jennifer Ahern
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages28
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Early online date29 Oct 2019
DateAccepted/In press - 7 Oct 2019
DateE-pub ahead of print (current) - 29 Oct 2019


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa is a critical public health problem. We assessed whether depressive symptoms in AGYW were longitudinally associated with incident HIV, and identified potential social and behavioral mediators. Data came from a randomized trial of a cash transfer conditional on school attendance among AGYW (ages 13 - 21) in rural Mpumalanga Province, South Africa during 2011-2017. We estimated the relationship between depressive symptoms and cumulative HIV incidence using a linear probability model, and assessed mediation using inverse odds ratio weighting. Inference was calculated using the non-parametric bootstrap. AGYW with depressive symptoms had higher cumulative incidence of HIV compared to those without (risk difference = 3.5 [95% CI 0.1, 7.0]). The strongest individual mediators of this association were parental monitoring and involvement (indirect effect = 1.6 [95% CI 0.0, 3.3]) and reporting a partner would hit her if she asked him to wear a condom (indirect effect = 1.5 [95% CI -0.3, 3.3]). All mediators jointly explained two-thirds (indirect effect = 2.4 [95% CI 0.2, 4.5]) of the association between depressive symptoms and HIV incidence. Interventions addressing mental health may reduce risk of acquiring HIV among AGYW.

    Research areas

  • depression, HIV/AIDS, adolescent health, South Africa



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