Detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific mucosal antibodies in saliva following concomitant COVID-19 and influenza vaccination in the ComFluCOV trial

Holly E Baum, Russell C J Thirard, Alice Halliday, Sarah C Baos, Amy Thomas, Rosie A Harris, Elizabeth H Oliver, Lucy Culliford, Benjamin E Hitchings, Rachel L Todd, Kapil Gupta, Anu Goenka, Adam H R Finn, Chris A Rogers, Rajeka Lazarus*, ComfluCOV Trial Group

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

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Abstract

The ComFluCOV trial randomized 679 participants to receive an age-appropriate influenza vaccine, or placebo, alongside their second COVID-19 vaccine. Concomitant administration was shown to be safe, and to preserve systemic immune responses to both vaccines. Here we report on a secondary outcome of the trial investigating SARS-CoV-2-specific mucosal antibody responses. Anti-spike IgG and IgA levels in saliva were measured with in-house ELISAs. Concomitant administration of an influenza vaccine did not affect salivary anti-spike IgG positivity rates to Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 (99.1 cf. 95.6%), or AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 (67.8% cf. 64.9%), at 3-weeks post-vaccination relative to placebo. Furthermore, saliva IgG positively correlated with serum titres highlighting the potential utility of saliva for assessing differences in immunogenicity in future vaccine studies. Mucosal IgA was not detected in response to either COVID-19 vaccine, reinforcing the need for novel vaccines capable of inducing sterilising immunity or otherwise reducing transmission. The trial is registered as ISRCTN 14391248.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2945-2950
Number of pages6
JournalVaccine
Volume42
Issue number12
Early online date4 Apr 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2024

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© 2024.

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