Development and evaluation of a venesection and cannulation training manikin

Andy Levy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
328 Downloads (Pure)


The design and construction method of a training manikin for venepuncture is described. Developed and refined over several years, the manikin consists of a shaped pad that the training partner secures during use by gripping the handles that extend behind the elbow or forearm. A thin layer of reinforced silicone rubber is stretched over a pad of polyurethane foam that loosely houses a length of thin-walled pure latex tubing fed with artificial blood from a bag worn around the trainer's neck. A needle-proof shield and synthetic fur backing protect the trainer's arm in case of overenthusiastic or inept needle insertion. The whole assembly is inexpensive to make and allows the doctor/patient interaction to be closely simulated. A tourniquet can be positioned and released at the appropriate times: the feel and movement of a blood vessel beneath the skin to palpation and the changes in resistance as the needle is inserted first through the skin and then into the blood vessel is highly realistic. The method for producing the manikin, free of intellectual property limitations or restrictions and a summary of its use in undergraduate assessments are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-36
Number of pages5
JournalBMJ Innovations
Issue number1
Early online date30 Jan 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2017


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