Although expression of the IGF-II has been demonstrated within the central nervous system (CNS), past studies have failed to reveal its precise roles or responses subsequent to a traumatic injury. To demonstrate that IGF-II, IGFBP, and IGF receptor (-R) expression alters in response to a penetrating CNS injury, we used the techniques of ribonuclease protection assay, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and RIA. Under normal physiology, IGF-II expression is restricted to the mesenchymal support structures of the brain, including the choroid plexus, where its expression is coincident with that of IGFBP-2. Between 1-7 days post lesion (dpl), in the acute phase following a penetrant wound to the CNS, IGF-II and IGF-IIR protein, but not messenger RNA, were colocalized, with IGF-I, IGF-IR, and IGFBP-1, -2, -3, and -6, to neurons, macrophages, astrocytes, and microglia within the damaged tissue. Within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), levels of IGF-II peptide increased to peak at 7 dpl. IGFBP-2, -3, and -6 were also observed within the CSF, with IGFBP-2 predominating and exhibiting an increase in binding efficiency from 7-10 dpl. In the chronic phase of injury (7-14 dpl), an increase in both IGF-II, IGF-IIR and IGFBP-5 messenger RNA and protein was observed specifically and focally in the marginal astrocytes forming the limiting glial membrane of the wound. Thus, our evidence suggests that there are two mechanisms of action for IGF-II within the injured rat brain. During the acute phase, the secretion of IGF-II from the choroid plexus into the CSF is up-regulated, resulting in increased transport of the peptide to the wound. In the CSF, transported IGF-II is complexed to IGFBP-2 and essentially demonstrates an endocrine mode of action with a balance of locally produced IGFBPs modulating its bioactivity in the wound. Later in the wounding response, levels of IGF-II decline in the CSF and the wound neuropil, possibly with the aid of increased IGFBP-5 levels that may help to locally sequester and down-regulate IGF-II activity. Hence, in the chronic phase of the injury response, IGF-II reasserts itself to a predominantly autocrine/paracrine role restricted to the mesenchymal support structures, including the glia limitans, which may help reestablish and maintain tissue homeostasis.
|Number of pages||13|
|Publication status||Published - 1999|