Ethical dilemmas are commonplace in clinical cardiology. There has been a recent focus on ethical behaviour of cardiologists and debate about resource allocation and cost-effectiveness of new technologies. The case of an intravenous drug addict, with native aortic valve endocarditis complicated by a cerebral abscess and severe aortic regurgitation, is presented to illustrate some common ethical and moral dilemmas. The predominant theories in medical ethics, including the "Four-Principles Approach," is discussed, and a model to translate these ethical theories into a clinical decision-making tool is presented.
Bromage, D. I., McLauchlan, D. J., & Nightingale, A. K. (2009). Do cardiologists and cardiac surgeons need ethics? Achieving happiness for a drug user with endocarditis. Heart, 95(11), 885-7. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2008.163782