Do inflammation and adiposity mediate the association of diet quality with depression and anxiety in young adults?

Ana Paula Gomes*, Helen Gonçalves, Juliana dos Santos Vaz, Christian Kieling, Luis Augusto Rohde, Isabel O Oliveira, Ana Luiza Goncalves Soares

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

Abstract

Background & aims: Diet quality has been inversely associated with depression, but less is known about its association with anxiety and about the mechanisms involved in the association between diet and mental health. This study aimed to assess the associations of diet quality with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in young adults, and to explore whether inflammation, indexed by interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and body mass index (BMI) mediate this association.
Methods: We used data of 3331 participants from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Brazil). Data on dietary intake and inflammatory markers were assessed at 18 years, and information on mental disorders was obtained at both 18 and 22 years. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake, and diet quality was estimated using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index – Revised (BHEI-R). The occurrence of MDD and GAD was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), conducted by psychologists. The associations of diet quality, BMI and inflammatory markers with mental disorders were explored using logistic regression. The mediation analysis was performed using structural equation modelling.
Results: A one standard deviation increase in the diet quality score at age 18 years was associated with both lower levels of CRP (−0.06 mg/L) at 18 years and 23% lower odds of MDD at 22 years. No association was found between diet quality score and both BMI and GAD. Obesity was associated with higher odds of MDD, but CRP and IL-6 were not associated with MDD or GAD. Our results provide no evidence that inflammatory markers and BMI mediate the association between diet quality and MDD in young adults.
Conclusions: A better diet quality is associated with lower occurrence of MDD among young adults, but we did not find evidence that inflammatory markers and BMI mediate this association.
Keywords: Mental health; Diet; Young adults; Cohort studies
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2800-2808
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Nutrition
Volume40
Issue number5
Early online date7 Apr 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This article is based on data from the study ?Pelotas Birth Cohort, 1993? conducted by Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology at Federal University of Pelotas with the collaboration of the Brazilian Public Health Association (ABRASCO). From 2004 to 2013, the Wellcome Trust supported the 1993 birth cohort study. The European Union, National Support Program for Centers of Excellence (PRONEX), the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq), and the Brazilian Ministry of Health supported previous phases of the study. The 22-year follow-up was carried out with financial support from DECIT, Ministry of Health, and the resources were transferred through CNPq [process 400,943/2013?1]. This study was financed in part by the Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001. APG has received a scholarship from CAPES and CNPq. AGS works in a Unit that is supported by the University of Bristol and UK Medical Research Council (MC_UU_00011/6). CK has received support from Brazilian governmental research funding agencies (CNPq, CAPES, and Funda??o de Amparo ? Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul [Fapergs]), and is a UK Academy of Medical Sciences Newton Advanced Fellow. HG is supported by CNPq. All the founding sources had no role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.LAR has served on the speakers? bureaus and/or acted as a consultant in the last three years for, Bial, Medice, Upjohn/Pfizer, Sandoz/Novartis, and Takeda/Shire; he receives authorship royalties from Oxford University Press and ArtMed; the ADHD and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Outpatient Programs chaired by him received unrestricted educational and research support from Sandoz/Novartis, and Takeda/Shire; and he has received travel grants from Shire to attend the 2018 APA Annual Meeting. All the other authors declare no conflict of interest.

Funding Information:
This article is based on data from the study “Pelotas Birth Cohort, 1993′ conducted by Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology at Federal University of Pelotas with the collaboration of the Brazilian Public Health Association (ABRASCO). From 2004 to 2013, the Wellcome Trust supported the 1993 birth cohort study. The European Union , National Support Program for Centers of Excellence (PRONEX) , the Brazilian National Research Council ( CNPq ), and the Brazilian Ministry of Health supported previous phases of the study. The 22-year follow-up was carried out with financial support from DECIT , Ministry of Health , and the resources were transferred through CNPq [process 400,943/2013–1]. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001 . APG has received a scholarship from CAPES and CNPq . AGS works in a Unit that is supported by the University of Bristol and UK Medical Research Council ( MC_UU_00011/6 ). CK has received support from Brazilian governmental research funding agencies ( CNPq , CAPES , and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul [Fapergs] ), and is a UK Academy of Medical Sciences Newton Advanced Fellow. HG is supported by CNPq . All the founding sources had no role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism

Keywords

  • mental health
  • diet
  • young adults
  • cohort studies

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Do inflammation and adiposity mediate the association of diet quality with depression and anxiety in young adults?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this