Do multiple concurrent infections in African children cause irreversible immunological damage?

Sarah J Glennie, Moffat Nyirenda, Neil A Williams, Robert S Heyderman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Much of the developing world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, has high levels of morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The greatest risk of invasive disease is in the young, the malnourished and HIV-infected individuals. In many regions in Africa these vulnerable groups and the wider general population are under constant immune pressure from a range of environmental factors, under-nutrition and multiple concurrent infections from birth through to adulthood. Intermittent microbial exposure during childhood is required for the generation of naturally acquired immunity capable of protection against a range of infectious diseases in adult life. However, in the context of a resource-poor setting, the heavy burden of malarial, diarrhoeal and respiratory infections in childhood may subvert or suppress immune responses rather than protect, resulting in sub-optimal immunity. This review will explore how poor maternal health, HIV exposure, socio-economic and seasonal factors conspire to weaken childhood immune defences to disease and discuss the hypothesis that recurrent infections may drive immune dysregulation, leading to relative immune senescence and premature immunological aging.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-32
Number of pages8
JournalImmunology
Volume135
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012

Bibliographical note

© 2011 The Authors. Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Keywords

  • Communicable Diseases
  • Humans
  • Africa
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool

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