Documenting the prevalence of hiatal hernia and oesophageal abnormalities in brachycephalic dogs using fluoroscopy

E. J. Reeve*, D. Sutton, E. J. Friend, C. M.R. Warren-Smith

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)
2461 Downloads (Pure)


MR 10.08.2017
Thoracolumbar spine:
- included in these images there are 8 lumbar vertebrae with no ribs, there are 12 included thoracic vertebra (either T1 is not included and there is an additional lumbar vertebra, or more likely T13 is transitional with no ribs.)
- For clarity the first vertebra with no ribs is referred to in this report as L1
- All included discs have loss of T2W signal from the nucleus pulposus consistent with dehydration.
- L2-3 and L4-5 have previous right hemilaminectomy proceedures, the region is infilled with fat intensity material up to the curved profile of the dura. At this margin for both sites there is a well defined T2W and T1W hypointense margin at the dural surface.
- Along the length of the L2-3 surgical site there is marked increased intensity of the right 2/3 of the spinal cord with a crescent of recognisable parenchyma at the left.
- the spinal cord along the length of the L4-5 disc space there is some increased T2W hyperintensity predominantly within the grey matter. There is also a focal hypointense bulge at the dorsal most margin which may be consistent with some tethering of the spinal cord.
- at both these surgical sites there is mild dorsal bulging of the annulus fibrosis.
- At L1-2 there is dorsal bulging of the annulus fibrosus with dorsoventral compression of the spinal cord and loss of the T2W signal from the epidural and subarachnoid space. At the left dorsal aspect of the spinal cord is a small focal T1w and T2w hypointense focus that may indicate some fibrous material. There is a faint T2w hyperintense line crossing the spinal cord that may indicate a small amount of material adjacent to the cord (possibly in the right nerve root foramen)
- At T13-L1 there is hypoattenuating material in the ventrolateral right vertebral canal immediately dorsal to the disc space, displacing and compressing the cord towards the left and interrupting the T2W signal from the epidural and subarachnoid space. This is currently the most compressive lesion.
- At T11-12 there is midline dorsal bulging of the annulus fibrosus with interruption of the ventral T2W signal from the subarachnoid and epidural space.
- From mid L1 extending cranially to T12 there is a dorsoventrally oriented T2W hyperintensity within the spinal cord consistent with central canal dilation.

- There are marked changes within the spinal cord at both previous surgical sites (on the basis of L1 being the first ribless vertebra these are at L2-3 and L4-5) this is most likely due to gliosis, with suspicion of tethering of the cord at L4-5.
- there are multiple other disc herniations (T11-12, T13-L1, L1-2) with the most compressive lesion at T13-L1, this is more right sided and is most likely to be the most clinically relevant lesion.
- Right sided nerve root foramen changes at L1-2
- the more cranial spinal cord parenchymal changes may be recent, or chronic from the multiple previous disc herniations and surgical proceedures.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)703-708
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Small Animal Practice
Issue number12
Early online date30 Sept 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017




Dive into the research topics of 'Documenting the prevalence of hiatal hernia and oesophageal abnormalities in brachycephalic dogs using fluoroscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this