Early adulthood socioeconomic trajectories contribute to inequalities in adult cardiovascular health, independently of childhood and adulthood socioeconomic position

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

Abstract

Background
Cardiovascular health shows significant socioeconomic inequalities, however there is little understanding of the role of early adulthood in generation of these inequalities. We assessed the contribution of socioeconomic trajectories during early adulthood (16-24y) to cardiovascular health in mid-adulthood (46y).
Methods
Participants from the 1970 British Cohort Study with socioeconomic data available in early adulthood were included (n=12,423). Longitudinal latent class analysis identified socioeconomic trajectories, based on patterns of economic activity across early adulthood. Cardiometabolic risk factors (46y) were regressed on socioeconomic trajectory class (16-24y), testing mediation by adult socioeconomic position (46y). Models were stratified by sex and adjusted for childhood SEP and adolescent health.
Results
Six early adulthood socioeconomic trajectories were identified: (1) Continued Education (20.2%), (2) Managerial employment (16.0%), (3) Skilled Non-manual employment (20.9%), (4) Skilled Manual employment (18.9%), (5) Partly Skilled employment (15.8%), and (6) Economically Inactive (8.1%). The ‘Continued Education’ trajectory class showed the best cardiovascular health at age 46y, with the lowest levels of cardiometabolic risk factors. For example, systolic blood pressure was 128.9mmHg (95%CI 127.8, 130.0) among men in the ‘Continued Education’ class, compared to 131.3mmHg (95%CI 130.4, 132.2) among men in the ‘Skilled Manual’ class. Patterns across classes 2-6 differed by risk factor and sex. The observed associations were largely not mediated by SEP at age 46y.
Conclusion
Findings suggest an independent contribution of early adulthood socioeconomic trajectories to development of later life cardiovascular inequalities. Further work is needed to understand mediators of this relationship and potential for interventions to mitigate these pathways.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 27 May 2021

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