Eco‐friendly panels made of autoclaved flax composites and upcycled bottle caps core: experimental and numerical analysis

Pablo Resende Oliveira, Michael May, Sebastian Kilchert, Lívia Ávila de Oliveira, Tulio Panzera, Vincent Placet, Fabrizio Scarpa, Stefan Hiermaier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
65 Downloads (Pure)


The use of recycled and renewable components in structural applications supports the development of sustainable lightweight structures. Disposed bottle caps can be used to generate eco-friendly honeycomb cores, especially when combined with other eco-friendly components. A natural fibre-based laminate represents an alternative to synthetic fibres, matrices, and metals in skins for sandwich panels. This study evaluates the use of flax fibre laminates as sustainable skins for sandwich panels made from upcycled bottle caps core. Metallic skin cases are also tested as a reference. The influence of the amount of adhesive used to produce the panels is also investigated in a 22 full factorial design, together with an independent test carried out on samples made from natural fibres. The characterisation against flexural and low-velocity dynamic loads indicates that the flax fibre skin leads to specific core shear and flexural moduli up to 19% higher than in aluminium-based panels. Unidirectional flax fibres, however, reduce the energy absorption during impact. Flexural properties show that the most efficient design involves the least adhesive amount. Finite element models also show a good fit to the experimental results and indicate a 166% increase of energy absorption with the presence of multidirectional fibre laminates.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100114
Number of pages12
JournalComposites Part C: Open Access
Early online date10 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank SSUCHY for the flaxtape supply, and the Brazilian research agency CNPq (PhD Scholarship GDE 290224/2017-9 , PQ 309885/2019-1 ) for the financial support provided.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s)


  • bottle caps
  • flax fibre laminate
  • FE models
  • design of experiment
  • sustainability


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    Scarpa, F.


    Project: Research, Parent

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