Economical and Efficient Hybrid Surfactant with Low Fluorine Content for the Stabilisation of Water-in-CO2 Microemulsions

Azmi Mohamed*, Tretya Ardyani, Masanobu Sagisaka, Shinji Ono, Tsuyoshi Narumi, Makoto Kubota, Paul Brown, Craig James, Julian Eastoe, Azlan Kamari, Norhayati Hashim, Illyas Md Isa, Suriani Abu Bakar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
254 Downloads (Pure)


The relationship between the tail architecture and performance of hybrid AOT analogue surfactants has been investigated. Three hybrid surfactants were synthesised using hydrocarbon CO2-philic tails with different levels of chain branching. The performance of each surfactant was investigated via high-pressure phase behaviour, UV-visible spectroscopy, and air–water (a/w) surface tension measurements. Notably, the incorporation of hydrocarbon CO2-philic tails with a high degree of branching has been found to significantly boost CO2-philicity, allowing the surfactant to stabilise water-in-CO2 (w/c) microemulsions at low cloud pressures, Ptrans. The newly synthesised hybrid CF2/SIS1 (sodium (4H, 4H, 5H, 5H, 5H-pentafluoropenyl-5,7,7-trimethyl-2-(1,3,3-trimethyl-buthyl)-octyl)-2-sulfosuccinate) is a CO2-philic surfactant that contains the lowest amount of fluorine (15.01 wt%) and exhibits the highest efficiency of any di-chain surfactant to date. High-pressure phase behaviour studies provided a maximum water-to-surfactant molar ratio (wmax) of wmax = 39, which is usually only observed from surfactants with long fluorocarbon chains. The present results are beneficial for expanding the pool of economical, effective, and efficient surfactants available for CO2-based technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-136
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Supercritical Fluids
Early online date19 Jan 2015
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2015


  • Branching factor
  • CO-philic surfactant
  • Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO)
  • W/c microemulsions

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