Ectopic lymphoid-like structures in infection, cancer and autoimmunity

Costantino Pitzalis, Gareth Wyn Jones, Michele Bombardieri, Simon Arnett Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review


Ectopic lymphoid-like structures often develop at sites of inflammation where they influence the course of infection, autoimmune disease, cancer and transplant rejection. These lymphoid aggregates range from tight clusters of B cells and T cells to highly organized structures that comprise functional germinal centres. Although the mechanisms governing ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in human pathology remain poorly defined, the presence of ectopic lymphoid-like structures within inflamed tissues has been linked to both protective and deleterious outcomes in patients. In this Review, we discuss investigations in both experimental model systems and patient cohorts to provide a perspective on the formation and functions of ectopic lymphoid-like structures in human pathology, with particular reference to the clinical implications and the potential for therapeutic targeting.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)447-462
Number of pages16
JournalNature Reviews Immunology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jun 2014

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