OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate if glycemic control measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels near diagnosis are predictive of future glycemic outcomes and vascular complications in childhood onset type 1 diabetes (T1D).
METHODS: Evidence was gathered using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, and Cochrane Library up to February 2017) and snowballing techniques. Studies investigating the association between the exposure "early glycemic control" and main outcome: "tracking of early control" and secondary outcome: risk of future complications; in children and young people aged 0 to 19 years at baseline; were systematically double-reviewed, quality assessed, and outcome data extracted for synthesis and meta-analysis.
FINDINGS: Five studies (N = 4227 participants) were eligible. HbA1c levels were sub-optimal throughout the study period but tended to stabilize in a "track" by 6 months after T1D diagnosis. The group with low HbA1c <53 mmol/mol (<7%) at baseline had lower long-term HbA1c levels than the higher HbA1c group. The estimated standardized mean difference between the sub groups showed a reduction of HbA1c levels on average by 1.6% (range -0.95% to -2.28%) from baseline. Only one study investigated the association between early glycemic control and development of vascular complications in childhood onset T1D.
INTERPRETATIONS: Glycemic control after the first few months of childhood onset T1D, remains stable but sub-optimal for a decade. The low and high HbA1c levels at baseline seem to "track" in their respective tracks during the 10-year follow-up, however, the initial difference between groups narrows over time.
PROSPERO: CRD42015024546 http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015024546.
- glycemic control