Effect of precursor on antifouling efficacy of vertically-oriented graphene nanosheets

Karthika Prasad, Chaturanga D. Bandara, Shailesh Kumar, Gurinder Pal Singh, Bastian Brockhoff, Kateryna Bazaka*, Kostya Ken Ostrikov

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Antifouling efficacy of graphene nanowalls, i.e., substrate-bound vertically-oriented graphene nanosheets, has been demonstrated against biofilm-forming Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Where graphene nanowalls are typically prepared using costly high-temperature synthesis from high-purity carbon precursors, large-scale applications demand efficient, low-cost processes. The advancement of plasma enabled synthesis techniques in the production of nanomaterials has opened a novel and effective method for converting low-cost natural waste resources to produce nanomaterials with a wide range of applications. Through this work, we report the rapid reforming of sugarcane bagasse, a low-value by-product from sugarcane industry, into high-quality vertically-oriented graphene nanosheets at a relatively low temperature of 400C. Electron microscopy showed that graphene nanowalls fabricated from methane were significantly more effective at preventing surface attachment of Gram-negative rod-shaped Escherichia coli compared to bagasse-derived graphene, with both surfaces showing antifouling efficacy comparable to copper. Attachment of Gram-positive coccal Staphylococcus aureus was lower on the surfaces of both types of graphene compared to that on copper, with bagasse-derived graphene being particularly effective. Toxicity to planktonic bacteria estimated as a reduction in colony-forming units as a result of sample exposure showed that both graphenes effectively retarded cell replication.

Original languageEnglish
Article number170
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The work is supported by Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and Queensland University of Technology. Karthika Prasad and Chaturanga D. Bandara acknowledge the QUT Science and Engineering Faculty (SEF) Scholarship and QUT Postgraduate Research Award (QUT PRA) for the research funding. The authors acknowledge the facilities and the scientific and technical assistance at the Central Analytical Research Facility (CARF), Queensland University of Technology.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Graphene
  • Nanowalls
  • Plasma-enabled synthesis


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