Effects of 7.5% CO2-induced anxiety on individual performance: During a group computer combat game

Alison Diaper*, David J. Nutt, Marcus R. Munafò, Joanna L. White, Eric W. Farmer, Jayne E. Bailey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The inhalation of 7.5% CO2 has been shown to induce cognitive effects similar to anxiety. Sixteen healthy participants (14 male mean age 25.6 years) inhaled either a mixture of 7.5% CO2 gas or air while playing a group combat computer game. Participants reported greater feelings of anxiety and fired fewer bullets when inhaling CO2 compared with air, indicating CO2-induced anxiety may improve efficiency without task-related decrements. Being able to induce controlled and measured anxiety in group situations by CO2 inhalation may be a useful technique when evaluating response to stressful situations, such as combat, in simulators or real-life scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)615-622
Number of pages8
JournalMilitary Psychology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013

Structured keywords

  • Brain and Behaviour
  • Tobacco and Alcohol


  • Anxiety
  • Carbon dioxide inhalation
  • Computer game
  • Group
  • Performance

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