Efficacy of an inactivated influenza vaccine adjuvanted with Toll-like receptor ligands against transmission of H9N2 avian influenza virus in chickens

Sugandha Raj, Mohammadali Alizadeh, Ayumi Matsuyama-Kato, Nitish Boodhoo, Myles St Denis, Éva Nagy, Samira Mubareka, Khalil Karimi, Shahriar Behboudi, Shayan Sharif*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

9 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Avian influenza viruses (AIV), including the H9N2 subtype, pose a major threat to the poultry industry as well as to human health. Although vaccination provides a protective control measure, its effect on transmission remains uncertain in chickens. The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of beta-propiolactone (BPL) whole inactivated H9N2 virus (WIV) vaccine either alone or in combination with CpG ODN 2007 (CpG), poly(I:C) or AddaVax™ (ADD) to prevent H9N2 AIV transmission in chickens. The seeder chickens (trial 1) and recipient chickens (trial 2) were vaccinated twice with different vaccine formulations. Ten days after secondary vaccination, seeder chickens were infected with H9N2 AIV (trial 1) and co-housed with healthy recipient chickens. In trial 2, the recipient chickens were vaccinated and then exposed to H9N2 AIV-infected seeder chickens. Our results demonstrated that BPL+ CpG and BPL+ poly(I:C) treated chickens exhibited reduced oral and cloacal shedding in both trials post-exposure (PE). The number of H9N2 AIV+ recipient chickens in the BPL+ CpG group (trial 1) was lower than in other vaccinated groups, and the reduction was higher in BPL+ CpG recipient chickens in trial 2. BPL+ CpG vaccinated chickens demonstrated enhanced systemic antibody responses with high IgM and IgY titers with higher rates of seroprotection by day 21 post-primary vaccination (ppv). Additionally, the induction of IFN-γ expression and production was higher in the BPL+ CpG treated chickens. Interleukin (IL)− 2 expression was upregulated in both BPL+ CpG and BPL+ poly(I:C) groups at 12 and 24 hr post-stimulation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number110715
JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Volume268
Early online date11 Jan 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to acknowledge support of staff at the isolation facility, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. We sincerely thank the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Italy for contributing the H9N2 AIV strain used in the current research. The current work was supported by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). We are also thankful to Ch icken Farmers of Saskatchewan, Egg Farmers of Canada, and Canadian Poultry Research Council for funding. Funding was also provided by the University of Guelph’s Food from Thought initiative. S.R. was recipient of an Arrell Food Institute Graduate Scholarship. Shahriar Behboudi is supported by a UKRI Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) Institute Strategic Programme Grant to the Pirbright Institute (BBS/E/I/00007030).

Funding Information:
The current work was supported by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). We are also thankful to Chicken Farmers of Saskatchewan, Egg Farmers of Canada, and Canadian Poultry Research Council for funding. Funding was also provided by the University of Guelph’s Food from Thought initiative. S.R. was recipient of an Arrell Food Institute Graduate Scholarship. Shahriar Behboudi is supported by a UKRI Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council ( BBSRC ) Institute Strategic Programme Grant to the Pirbright Institute ( BBS/E/I/00007030 ).

Funding Information:
The current work was supported by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). We are also thankful to Chicken Farmers of Saskatchewan, Egg Farmers of Canada, and Canadian Poultry Research Council for funding. Funding was also provided by the University of Guelph's Food from Thought initiative. S.R. was recipient of an Arrell Food Institute Graduate Scholarship. Shahriar Behboudi is supported by a UKRI Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) Institute Strategic Programme Grant to the Pirbright Institute (BBS/E/I/00007030).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Efficacy of an inactivated influenza vaccine adjuvanted with Toll-like receptor ligands against transmission of H9N2 avian influenza virus in chickens'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this