Cardiovascular diseases encompassing atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, restenosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension, remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In response to a range of stimuli, the dynamic interplay between biochemical and biomechanical mechanisms affect the behaviour and function of multiple cell types, driving the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Accumulating evidence has highlighted microRNAs (miRs) as significant regulators and micro-managers of key cellular and molecular pathophysiological processes involved in predominant cardiovascular diseases, including cell mitosis, motility and viability, lipid metabolism, generation of inflammatory mediators, and dysregulated proteolysis. Human pathological and clinical studies have aimed to identify select microRNA which may serve as biomarkers of disease and their progression, which are discussed within this review. In addition, I provide comprehensive coverage of in vivo investigations elucidating the modulation of distinct microRNA on the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysms, restenosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Collectively, clinical and animal studies have begun to unravel the complex and often diverse effects microRNAs and their targets impart during the development of cardiovascular diseases and revealed promising therapeutic strategies through which modulation of microRNA function may be applied clinically.