Against a historical background, this paper explores language-related challenges that have arisen in Lithuania since the cessation of Soviet hegemony. The reinstatement in 1990 of the official status of Lithuanian led to the gradual replacement of Russian in public life. Provisions were made for public-sector employees and other members from the ethnic communities to become proficient in the state language, and laws were introduced for the protection of minority languages and cultures. Lithuania's two major ethnic groups, the Russians and the Poles, have responded differently to integration, requiring different educational measures to support the diverse needs of a society in transition. In contrast to the other Baltic states, where the proportion of Russians and other non-indigenous minorities is greater, Lithuanian language and education policies have been successful in promoting social integration whilst at the same time safeguarding cultural and linguistic diversity.