Energy-dense snacks can have the same expected satiation as sugar-containing beverages

Ashley Martin, Liam Hamill, Sarah Davies, Peter Rogers, Jeff Brunstrom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
375 Downloads (Pure)


Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are thought to be problematic for weight management because energy delivered in liquid form may be less effective at suppressing appetite than solid foods. However, little is known about the relative ‘expected satiation’ (anticipated fullness) of SSBs and solid foods. This is relevant because expected satiation is an important determinant of portion selection and energy intake. Here, we used a method of constant stimuli to assess the expectedsatiation of test meals that were presented in combination with different caloric and non-caloric beverages (500ml) (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as with high-energy solid snack foods (Experiment 2). All energy-containing beverages and snack foods were presented in 210 kcal portions. Both experiments found that expected satiation was greater for meals containing caloric versus non-caloric beverages (201.3 ± 17.3 vs. 185.4 ± 14.1 kcal in Experiment 2; p < .05). Further, Experiment 2 showed that this difference was greater in participants who were familiar with our test beverages, indicating a role for learning. Notably, we failed to observe a significant difference in expected satiation between any of the caloric beverages and snack foods in Experiment 2 (range: 192.5 – 205.2 kcal; p = .87). This finding suggests that it may be more appropriate to consider beverages and solid foods on the same continuum, recognizing that the expected satiation of some solid foods is as weak as some beverages.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-88
Number of pages8
Early online date27 Jun 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015

Structured keywords

  • Brain and Behaviour
  • Nutrition and Behaviour


  • sugar sweetened beverages;
  • satiety
  • low energy sweetener
  • viscosity
  • learning
  • expected satiation
  • portion size
  • texture


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