The growth of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems in low-voltage (LV) networks has the potential to raise several technical issues, including voltage unbalance and distribution system efficiency. This paper proposes an energy storage system (ESS) for mitigating voltage unbalance as well as improving the efficiency of the network. In the study, a power system simulation tool, namely PSCAD, is used to model two generic LV networks, BIPV systems and an ESS in order to simulate the performance of the networks with various levels of BIPV penetrations. A control algorithm is developed and implemented in the energy storage model in order to study the ability of the ESS to mitigate network voltage unbalance and reduce losses. Experimental studies are carried out in the experimental small-scale energy zone to investigate the effectiveness of the energy storage system under various levels of PV penetration and load conditions. The simulation and experimental studies carried out clearly show the effectiveness of the ESS in reducing the voltage unbalance factor and improving the efficiency of the two networks considered.
Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV)
- energy storage system
- small-scale embedded generation
- voltage unbalance factor