Bipartite entanglement is one of the fundamental quantifiable resources of quantum information theory. We propose a new application of this resource to the theory of quantum measurements. According to Naimark's theorem any rank 1 generalised measurement (POVM) M may be represented as a von Neumann measurement in an extended (tensor product) space of the system plus ancilla. By considering a suitable average of the entanglements of these measurement directions and minimising over all Naimark extensions, we define a notion of entanglement cost E-min(M) of M.
We give a constructive means of characterising all Naimark extensions of a given POVM. We identify various classes of POVMs with zero and non-zero cost and explicitly characterise all POVMs in 2 dimensions having zero cost. We prove a constant upper bound on the entanglement cost of any POVM in any dimension. Hence the asymptotic entanglement cost (i.e. the large n limit of the cost of n applications of M, divided by n) is zero for all POVMs.
The trine measurement is defined by three rank 1 elements, with directions symmetrically placed around a great circle on the Bloch sphere. We give an analytic expression for its entanglement cost. Defining a normalised cost of any d-dimensional POVM by E-min (M) / log(2) d, we show (using a combination of analytic and numerical techniques) that the trine measurement is more costly than any other POVM with d > 2, or with d = 2 and ancilla dimension 2. This strongly suggests that the trine measurement is the most costly of all POVMs.
|Translated title of the contribution||Entanglement cost of generalised measurements|
|Pages (from-to)||405 - 422|
|Number of pages||18|
|Journal||Quantum Information and Computation|
|Publication status||Published - Sep 2003|
Bibliographical notePublisher: Rinton Press, Inc
Other identifier: IDS Number: 718JV