Ethnic variations in five lower gastrointestinal diseases: Scottish health and ethnicity linkage study

Raj S Bhopal, Genevieve Cezard, Narinder Bansal, Hester J T Ward, Neeraj Bhala, SHELS Researchers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

16 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to augment the limited evidence mainly from local, clinical studies of ethnic differences in gastrointestinal disorders. Our question was: are there ethnic variations in hospitalisation/death for lower gastrointestinal disorders in Scotland?

SETTING: Scotland.

POPULATION: This retrospective-cohort linked 4.65 (of 4.9) million people in the 2001 census of Scotland (providing data on ethnicity, country of birth and indicators of socioeconomic deprivation) to 9 years of National Health Service hospitalisation and death records.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES AND ANALYSIS: For appendicitis, we studied all ages; for irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and diverticular disease, we included those ≥20 years. Using Poisson regression (robust variance) we calculated, by ethnic group and sex, first-hospitalisation/death age-adjusted rates per 100,000 person-years, and relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs multiplied by 100, so the White Scottish reference population had an RR=100.

RESULTS: There were ethnic variations; for example, for irritable bowel syndrome, RRs (95% CIs) were comparatively high in Other White British women (128.4 (111.0 to 148.6)), and low in Pakistani women (75.1 (60.6 to 93.1)). For appendicitis, RRs were high in men in Other White British (145.2 (127.8 to 164.9)), and low in most non-White groups, for example, Pakistanis (73.8 (56.9 to 95.6)). For ulcerative colitis, RRs were high in Indian (169.8 (109.7 to 262.7)) and Pakistani (160.8 (104.2 to 248.2)) men. For Crohn's disease, the RR was high in Pakistani men (209.2 (149.6 to 292.6)). For diverticular disease, RRs were high in Irish men (176.0 (156.9 to 197.5)), and any Mixed background women (144.6 (107.4 to 194.8)), and low in most non-White groups, for example, Chinese men (47.1 (31.0 to 71.6) and women (46.0 (30.4 to 69.8)).

CONCLUSIONS: Appendicitis and diverticular disease were comparatively low in most non-White groups, while ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were mostly higher in South Asians. Describing and understanding such patterns may help clinical practice and research internationally.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e006120
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 21 Oct 2014


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Africa
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Aged
  • Appendicitis
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • China
  • Cohort Studies
  • Colitis, Ulcerative
  • Crohn Disease
  • Diverticulum
  • England
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • India
  • Ireland
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Pakistan
  • Regression Analysis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Scotland
  • Young Adult
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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