Evaporation of water: Evaporation rate and collective effects

Odile Carrier, Noushine Shahidzadeh-Bonn, Rojman Zargar, Mounir Aytouna, Mehdi Habibi, Jens Eggers, Daniel Bonn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)
898 Downloads (Pure)


We study the evaporation rate from single drops as well as collections of drops on a solid substrate, both experimentally and theoretically. For a single isolated drop of water, in general the evaporative flux is limited by diffusion of water through the air, leading to an evaporation rate that is proportional to the linear dimension of the drop. Here, we test the limitations of this scaling law for several small drops and for very large drops. We find that both for simple arrangements of drops, as well as for complex drop size distributions found in sprays, cooperative effects between drops are significant. For large drops, we find that the onset of convection introduces a length scale of approximately 20 mm in radius, below which linear scaling is found. Above this length scale, the evaporation rate is proportional to the surface area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)774-786
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
Early online date9 Jun 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2016


  • Condensation/evaporation
  • drops
  • phase change


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