Evidence for short-term, but not long-term, transfer effects in the temporal preparation of auditory stimuli

Emily M. Crowe, Christopher Kent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
147 Downloads (Pure)


Starting procedures in racing sports consist of a warning (e.g., "Set") followed by a target (e.g., "Go") signal. During this interval (the foreperiod), athletes engage in temporal preparation whereby they prepare to respond to the target as quickly as possible. Despite a long history, the cognitive mechanisms underlying this process are debated. Recently, it has been suggested that traces of previous temporal durations drive temporal preparation performance rather than the traditional explanation that performance is related to the currently perceived hazard function. Los and colleagues used visual stimuli for the warning and target signals. As racing sports typically rely upon auditory stimuli, we investigated the role of memory on temporal preparation in the auditory domain. Experiment 1 investigated long-term transfer effects. In an acquisition phase, two groups of participants were exposed to different foreperiod distributions. One week later, during a transfer phase, both groups received the same distribution of foreperiods. There was no evidence for transfer effects. Therefore, Experiment 2 examined short-term transfer effects in which acquisition and transfer phases were completed in the same testing session. There was some evidence for transfer effects, but this was limited, suggesting that there may be modality-specific memory differences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2672-2679
Number of pages8
JournalQuarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Issue number11
Early online date13 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019

Structured keywords

  • Memory
  • Cognitive Science


  • Temporal Preparation
  • Foreperiod
  • acing Sports
  • Memory
  • Hazard Function
  • Multiple Trace Theory


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