Excitonic and lattice contributions to the charge density wave in 1T-TiSe2 revealed by a phonon bottleneck

Hamoon Hedayat, Charles J. Sayers, Davide Bugini, Claudia Dallera, Daniel Wolverson, Tim Batten, Sara Karbassi, Sven Friedemann, Giulio Cerullo, Jasper van Wezel, Stephen R. Clark, Ettore Carpene, Enrico Da Como*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

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Understanding collective electronic states such as superconductivity and charge density waves is pivotal for fundamental science and applications. The layered transition metal dichalcogenide 1T-TiSe2 hosts a unique charge density wave (CDW) phase transition whose origins are still not fully understood. Here, we present ultrafast time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES) measurements complemented by time-resolved reflectivity (TRR) which allows us to establish the contribution of excitonic and electron-phonon interactions to the CDW. We monitor the energy shift of the valence band (VB) and coupling to coherent phonons as a function of laser fluence. The VB shift, directly related to the CDW gap closure, exhibits a markedly slower recovery dynamics at fluences above Fth = 60 microJ cm-2. This observation coincides with a shift in the relative weight of coherently coupled phonons to higher frequency modes in time-resolved reflectivity (TRR), suggesting a phonon bottleneck. Using a rate equation model, the emergence of a high-fluence bottleneck is attributed to an abrupt reduction in coupled phonon damping and an increase in exciton dissociation rate. Thus, our work establishes the important role of both excitonic and phononic interactions in the CDW phase transition, as well as the Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons in 1T-TiSe2.
Original languageEnglish
Article number023029
Number of pages11
JournalPhysical Review Research
Publication statusPublished - 26 Sep 2020


  • cond-mat.str-el
  • cond-mat.mes-hall
  • cond-mat.mtrl-sci


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