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Exploring the association of genetic factors with participation in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

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@article{9296d4fa9e7c45ada8582c5c319e730f,
title = "Exploring the association of genetic factors with participation in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children",
abstract = "BackgroundIt is often assumed that selection (including participation and dropout) does not represent an important source of bias in genetic studies. However, there is little evidence to date on the effect of genetic factors on participation. MethodsUsing data on mothers (N=7,486) and children (N=7,508) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we 1) examined the association of polygenic risk scores for a range of socio-demographic, lifestyle characteristics and health conditions related to continued participation, 2) investigated whether associations of polygenic scores with body mass index (BMI; derived from self-reported weight and height) and self-reported smoking differed in the largest sample with genetic data and a sub-sample who participated in a recent follow-up and 3) determined the proportion of variation in participation explained by common genetic variants using genome-wide data. ResultsWe found evidence that polygenic scores for higher education, agreeableness and openness were associated with higher participation and polygenic scores for smoking initiation, higher BMI, neuroticism, schizophrenia, ADHD and depression were associated with lower participation. Associations between the polygenic score for education and self-reported smoking differed between the largest sample with genetic data (OR for ever smoking per SD increase in polygenic score:0.85, 95{\%} CI:0.81,0.89) and sub-sample (OR:0.96, 95{\%} CI:0.89,1.03). In genome-wide analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism based heritability explained 18-32{\%} of variability in participation. ConclusionsGenetic association studies, including Mendelian randomization, can be biased by selection, including loss to follow-up. Genetic risk for dropout should be considered in all analyses of studies with selective participation.",
keywords = "ALSPAC, participation , MISSING DATA, genetics, GWAS, Polygenic risk score (PRS)",
author = "Amy Taylor and Hannah Jones and Hannah Sallis and {Davey Smith}, George and Debbie Lawlor and Neil Davies and Evie Stergiakouli and Marcus Munafo and Jack Euesden and Kate Tilling and Stan Zammit",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1093/ije/dyy060",
language = "English",
volume = "47",
pages = "1207--1216",
journal = "International Journal of Epidemiology",
issn = "0300-5771",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "4",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Exploring the association of genetic factors with participation in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

AU - Taylor, Amy

AU - Jones, Hannah

AU - Sallis, Hannah

AU - Davey Smith, George

AU - Lawlor, Debbie

AU - Davies, Neil

AU - Stergiakouli, Evie

AU - Munafo, Marcus

AU - Euesden, Jack

AU - Tilling, Kate

AU - Zammit, Stan

PY - 2018/8

Y1 - 2018/8

N2 - BackgroundIt is often assumed that selection (including participation and dropout) does not represent an important source of bias in genetic studies. However, there is little evidence to date on the effect of genetic factors on participation. MethodsUsing data on mothers (N=7,486) and children (N=7,508) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we 1) examined the association of polygenic risk scores for a range of socio-demographic, lifestyle characteristics and health conditions related to continued participation, 2) investigated whether associations of polygenic scores with body mass index (BMI; derived from self-reported weight and height) and self-reported smoking differed in the largest sample with genetic data and a sub-sample who participated in a recent follow-up and 3) determined the proportion of variation in participation explained by common genetic variants using genome-wide data. ResultsWe found evidence that polygenic scores for higher education, agreeableness and openness were associated with higher participation and polygenic scores for smoking initiation, higher BMI, neuroticism, schizophrenia, ADHD and depression were associated with lower participation. Associations between the polygenic score for education and self-reported smoking differed between the largest sample with genetic data (OR for ever smoking per SD increase in polygenic score:0.85, 95% CI:0.81,0.89) and sub-sample (OR:0.96, 95% CI:0.89,1.03). In genome-wide analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism based heritability explained 18-32% of variability in participation. ConclusionsGenetic association studies, including Mendelian randomization, can be biased by selection, including loss to follow-up. Genetic risk for dropout should be considered in all analyses of studies with selective participation.

AB - BackgroundIt is often assumed that selection (including participation and dropout) does not represent an important source of bias in genetic studies. However, there is little evidence to date on the effect of genetic factors on participation. MethodsUsing data on mothers (N=7,486) and children (N=7,508) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we 1) examined the association of polygenic risk scores for a range of socio-demographic, lifestyle characteristics and health conditions related to continued participation, 2) investigated whether associations of polygenic scores with body mass index (BMI; derived from self-reported weight and height) and self-reported smoking differed in the largest sample with genetic data and a sub-sample who participated in a recent follow-up and 3) determined the proportion of variation in participation explained by common genetic variants using genome-wide data. ResultsWe found evidence that polygenic scores for higher education, agreeableness and openness were associated with higher participation and polygenic scores for smoking initiation, higher BMI, neuroticism, schizophrenia, ADHD and depression were associated with lower participation. Associations between the polygenic score for education and self-reported smoking differed between the largest sample with genetic data (OR for ever smoking per SD increase in polygenic score:0.85, 95% CI:0.81,0.89) and sub-sample (OR:0.96, 95% CI:0.89,1.03). In genome-wide analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism based heritability explained 18-32% of variability in participation. ConclusionsGenetic association studies, including Mendelian randomization, can be biased by selection, including loss to follow-up. Genetic risk for dropout should be considered in all analyses of studies with selective participation.

KW - ALSPAC

KW - participation

KW - MISSING DATA

KW - genetics

KW - GWAS

KW - Polygenic risk score (PRS)

UR - https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/10/20/206698

U2 - 10.1093/ije/dyy060

DO - 10.1093/ije/dyy060

M3 - Article

C2 - 29800128

VL - 47

SP - 1207

EP - 1216

JO - International Journal of Epidemiology

JF - International Journal of Epidemiology

SN - 0300-5771

IS - 4

M1 - dyy060

ER -