Fault-tolerant connection of error-corrected qubits with noisy links

Joshua Ramette*, Josiah Sinclair, Nikolas P. Breuckmann, Vladan Vuletić

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review


One of the most promising routes toward scalable quantum computing is a modular approach. We show that distinct surface code patches can be connected in a fault-tolerant manner even in the presence of substantial noise along their connecting interface. We quantify analytically and numerically the combined effect of errors across the interface and bulk. We show that the system can tolerate 14 times higher noise at the interface compared to the bulk, with only a small effect on the code’s threshold and subthreshold behavior, reaching threshold with ~1% bulk errors and ~10% interface errors. This implies that fault-tolerant scaling of error-corrected modular devices is within reach using existing technology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number58
Journalnpj Quantum Information
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024

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© The Author(s) 2024.


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