Fine-scale behavioural adjustments of prey on a continuum of risk

Maud I.A. Kent*, James E. Herbert-Read, Gordon McDonald, A. Jamie Wood, Ashley J.W. Ward

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
173 Downloads (Pure)


In the wild, prey species often live in the vicinity of predators, rendering the ability to assess risk on a moment-to-moment basis crucial to survival. Visual cues are important as they allow prey to assess predator species, size, proximity and behaviour. However, few studies have explicitly examined prey’s ability to assess risk based on predator behaviour and orientation. Using mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and their predator, jade perch, Scortum barcoo, under controlled conditions, we provide some of the first fine-scale characterization of how prey adapt their behaviour according to their continuous assessment of risk based on both predator behaviour and angular distance to the predator’s mouth. When these predators were inactive and posed less of an immediate threat, prey within the attack cone of the predator showed reductions in speed and acceleration characteristic of predator-inspection behaviour. However, when predators became active, prey swam faster with greater acceleration and were closer together within the attack cone of predators. Most importantly, this study provides evidence that prey do not adopt a uniform response to the presence of a predator. Instead, we demonstrate that prey are capable of rapidly and dynamically updating their assessment of risk and showing fine-scale adjustments to their behaviour.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20190448
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1903
Early online date22 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - 29 May 2019


  • Attack cone
  • Collective behaviour
  • Fountain effect
  • Predator–prey interactions
  • Risk sensitivity

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